# References

## R Reference Manuals

Some great reference manuals for R can be found below: http://cran.r-project.org/manuals.html I recommend downloading the manual associated with the following quote: "The R Reference Index: contains all help files of the R standard and recommended packages in printable form. (9MB, approx. 3500 pages)"

## Expected Value

This section covers the formulas for calculating the expectation of a random variable, variance of a random variable, and the covariance between two random variables. The expectation of the random variable, if it exists, is the mean for that random variable. The formulas in this section are especially helpful to understand for people interested in …

## Inferential Statistics

1. Concept Behind Inferential Statistics To begin with there are certain fundamental concepts in this section that span the section and are used throughout statistics. Often a sample is taken and the sample is a subgroup of a larger group, the population. From the sample it is desired to learn about the population. For example, a …

## Random Variables

Understanding the concept of a random variable is important for a deeper understanding of statistics. Next some key terminology will be covered related to random variables. \defs{Definitions} {\bf Random variable: Is an outcome or observation whose value is determined by a process that is not predetermined and thus can't be predicted. Random variables are often …